Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness that poses a significant health threat to millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Often referred to as “breakbone fever” due to the severe joint and muscle pain it causes, Dengue poses a significant public health challenge in many countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 390 million dengue infections occur every year. Understanding the symptoms, causes, and prevention strategies for this disease is crucial to reduce its incidence and ensure timely treatment.

What is Dengue Fever?

Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus (DENV), which has four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4). Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that specific serotype but only short-term protection against the others.

The primary mode of transmission of dengue fever is through the bite of an infected female mosquito, specifically the Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, the Aedes albopictus. When a mosquito bites an infected person and ingests blood containing the virus, it becomes a carrier. After an incubation period, the mosquito can transmit the virus to other humans through its bite.


The incubation period after a bite from an infected mosquito ranges from 3 to 14 days. The symptoms of dengue fever can vary, ranging from mild to severe, and include:

  • High fever

  • Severe headache with pain behind the eyes

  • Joint and muscle pain

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Fatigue

  • Skin rash, which might appear a few days after the fever starts

  • Mild bleeding, such as nosebleeds or gum bleeding

In severe cases, the disease can progress to Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). These conditions can lead to bleeding, blood plasma leakage, and organ impairment, potentially being life-threatening if not treated promptly.


The direct cause of dengue fever is infection with the dengue virus, typically via the bite of an infected mosquito. There are several factors that contribute to the spread and incidence of dengue, including:


The rapid growth of urban areas provides ample breeding grounds for Aedes mosquitoes. Dense populations facilitate faster transmission. Especially in places with inadequate sanitation, stagnant water sources can become perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes.


International travel can introduce the virus into new areas. A person infected with dengue can travel to a non-endemic area, get bitten by a local Aedes mosquito, which then becomes infected and can spread the virus to other people.

Climate Change

Changes in climate can expand the range of the mosquitoes and influence dengue transmission. Rainy seasons can provide more breeding grounds for mosquitoes, while warm temperatures can accelerate the mosquito lifecycle and increase the frequency of blood feeding.

Lack of Public Awareness

In areas where dengue is not endemic or is newly emergent, the general population might not be aware of the risks and preventive measures, leading to increased vulnerability.

Prevention Strategies

Mosquito Control

Reducing mosquito populations is the primary strategy for preventing dengue fever. This can be achieved by eliminating breeding sites (stagnant water), using insecticides, and introducing natural predators like fish that consume mosquito larvae.

Personal Protection 

Mosquito Nets: Sleeping under mosquito nets, especially those treated with insecticides, can help prevent mosquito bites.

Repellents: Applying mosquito repellents on exposed skin. DEET, picaridin, and oil of lemon eucalyptus are commonly recommended repellents.

Clothing: Wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and shoes can reduce the risk of mosquito bites. Clothing can also be treated with repellents.

Community Awareness

Engaging communities in vector control measures, awareness campaigns, and educational programs can be very effective. A well-informed public can take proactive steps both individually and collectively.

Travel Precautions

If traveling to areas with dengue outbreaks, taking steps to avoid mosquito bites can reduce the risk of infection.


There is a dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) that is licensed for use in some countries for specific age groups. While the vaccine does not guarantee complete immunity, it can reduce the risk of severe disease in those who get infected. It is important to note that the vaccine is not recommended for everyone and has some controversies associated with its use. Always consult with healthcare professionals before considering vaccination.


Dengue fever is a global health challenge that requires combined efforts from individuals, communities, and governments to tackle. Recognizing its symptoms can lead to timely medical intervention, and adopting preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of transmission. As research continues, it is hoped that more effective treatments and prevention strategies will emerge, eventually bringing this debilitating disease under control.